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Alzheimer's Disease





Introduction

The purpose of this project is to introduce our topic which explains Alzheimer’s disease. First, the Anatomy of brain can help us to understand which areas of the Brain are more vulnerable, when Alzheimer hit the Brain.Second, the definition of Alzheimer's disease,multiples causes and factors that favourite this disease from occurring, symptoms and treatment are the next steps to know deeply this disease.






Anatomy of the Brain


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The brain is formed by billions of cells which can control the entire body .There are between 60 to 100 billionNeuronswith branches that connect 100 trillion point. Our Brain spreads the information to the body through neurons with both chemical and electrical signals.The Brain is constituted by two Hemispheres (right and left), so each part has it proper roles to accomplish.






what is Alzheimer's Disease ?


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Alzheimer's disease first identified in1906 by Dr.alois Alzheimer , a German psychiatrist and Neurologist who described this disese.He found that the brain disorder leads to personality change,memory loss ,intellectual slowing .Alzeihmer's can be caused by the accumulation of abnormal extracellulaire and intracellulaire deposits (Plaques and tangles).When this disease begins in the Brain ,the electrical and chemical signals fall down.The most damaged area is the Hippocampus ( is a major component of the brains of humans and other mammals,its play important role in motivation and emotional behaviour).










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Senile plaques and Tangles












Difference between Dementia and Alzeihmer

Most people can't make a relation between Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia.Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia and it’s a progressive brain disease that destroys brain cells , but dementia is the loss of brain function and its symptom caused by different causes of mental illness

Three-stages of Alzheimer's disease






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1 - Mild / early ------------ 2 - 4 years
When Alzheimer's is in its earliest stages ,
the area of the brain most affected is
the learning and memory center .
Consequently the symptoms are :
  • Confused with age.
  • Memory change.
  • Trouble remembering recent events and activities.
  • Forget familier people and things.








2-moderate/middel ---- 2-10 years
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The symptoms of moderate Alzheimer's disease
are in large part an increase in the severity
of the symptoms of the first stage.
On this stage people with Alzheimer's :
  • cannot live without assistance.
  • some confusion in time.
  • unable to recall important information .
  • gain and then losse weight.
  • huge appetites for junk food
  • forget when last meal was eaten


3 - Severe / late 1----3 years

In this stage people dependent on others for their cares and they can not communicate until the end of their life.
  • can’t recognize self or family.
  • complete change of personality.
  • little capacity for self care.
  • look in mirror and talk to own image.
  • sleep more.


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How to Diagnosis Alzheimer's?

One of the diagnostic tests for Alzheimer’s disease is Mental Status Examination (MSE)
  • Affect and mood (this shows the emotion behind the action).
  • Attitude, behaviour (this test shows signs dressing appropriately, combine their hair and restless).
  • Cognition (shows ability to think, attention, decision making and dealing.















Treatment of Alzeihmer's disease

Until now there is no treatment for Alzheimer because the scientists don't know how this disease occurs.However; there are many medication which can reduce the rapid progression of this disease.

CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS

This medication for mild to moderate Alzheimers helps to control some behavioral system and it delay the symptom not to becoming worse.





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NAMENDA

This treatment for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s, it helps to delay the progression to severe stage also it helps patients ability to use bathroom independently for several more months.

Who are at risk of Alzheimer’s disease?

The primary risk factors of Alzheimer’s are: age, family history, and genetics. However, there are other risk factors that can lead to this disease. As we will see in the next paragraph the risk to have this disease can change with the environment .Exemple, Seniors in America don't have the same rate of Alzheimer like people in Africa.
Statistics about Alzeihmer's in the world

  • Alzeihmer'disease international estimates that there were 26.6 million people with dementia in the world in 2006 and it will increase to 81 million by 2040.
  • In USA, the Number of Alzeihmer'disease reached 2.2 Millions in 1980 and 4.5 Millions in 2003.
  • Half a million Canadians have Alzheimer's disease and dementia so 1 in 11 Canadians over the age of 65 currently has Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia.
  • This year 103,000 Canadians will develop dementia.
  • Studies done in South India, have reported very low rates of Alzheimer’s disease in the population at 65 years of age or older. It’s about 1% .
  • Studies from some part of China and Taiwan have also shown a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease as compared to western countries.
  • Similarly, research studies comparing the Ibadan living in Nigeria, and African-Americans living in USA. In the Ibadan group, the proportion of Alzheimer’s disease cases was a low 1.4% , while the rate for Alzheimer’s disease among the African-Americans was estimated at 6.2%.


CONCLUSION
Some research suggested that population with higher education are at a lower risk for Alzheimer’s disease than those with less education.Some disease like high blood pressure, heart disease stroke, diabetes, and cholesterol can cause Alzheimer's disese.We should control our weight, avoid tobacco and alcohol, stay socially connected and exercises both our body and mind if we want to minimize this disease from occurring.

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Finally Eat a lot of fish





 Bibliography


  1. mild Alzeihmer
  2. Basal ganglia and limbic system.
  3. Alzeihmer causes-risk and factors
  4. http://kcoad1.wikispaces.com/Alzheimer%27s+Disease
  5. http://www.dementiaguide.com/community/dementia-articles/Difference_Alzheimer's_and_Dementia
  6. http://www.ahaf.org/alzheimers/about/risk/?gclid=CP7kqf2duakCFQM6gwodUhug9Q

































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